The presence of factual errors and outright misinformation in textbooks at school has provided fertile ground for the revisionist history of Marcos and his family. Marcos clan as well as its comrades.
In 2018, I was speaking before a large group of teachers from all over the nation about the difficulties in Social Studies education. One of the issues I highlighted during the discussion was the growing trend of negative revisionism in the past, mainly due to attempts to portray the former ruler Ferdinand E. Marcos, his family and those. The latter lived during the Martial Law period in a positive perspective.
In the open forum, one teacher at a school in Northern Luzon asked how something could be classified as historical revisionism or even an attempt to distort the past. She claimed that no one can honestly tell the truth of history and that it’s always been an issue of interpretation and perspective. The notion that the Marcoses were involved in the perversion of historical revisionism was an attempt to propagate the “other side” who believed their interpretation of the past to be accepted as the canon. She was incredibly enthusiastic about her opinions and was in tears during her speech.
This story might seem a bit odd for those who are educated about the history of the country and Martial Law. In my experiences as a teacher and educator trainer over the last 15 years, this was a normal reaction to discussions about Marcoses and Martial Law. Marcoses as well as Martial Law. Of all the subjects in Philippine history, they have proved to be the most controversial for teachers and have produced the most heated discussions. There are many reasons behind this, including regional loyalty and differing Martial Law experiences and access to information, for instance. Whatever the reason, it’s safe to say that it’s a matter to be concerned when the teachers, as those who oversee the education of the next generation of Filipinos, are unsure of the facts and the legacy of one of the bleakest periods of Philippine history.
Questions in Martial Law Education in the Philippines
While the Marcoses have slowly retreated to the apex of political power, the commentaries have been written about how they managed to leverage the potential of social media to restore their image to an era of Post-People Power generation. There have been various comments about how the Marcoses successfully joined forces with famous political clans to help strengthen their national leadership bid, culminating in the election of Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos, Jr. in the presidential election elections this month.
A topic that deserves deeper discussion, one of the most important aspects is the role of education was a significant factor in the growth of the Marcoses in the past three decades. A few articles have raised concerns regarding Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies) textbooks containing mistakes and inaccurate information concerning Marcos Sr. and Martial Law. In these books, the former strongman is typically depicted as a positive figure, a kind dictator who needed to resort to force to treat society’s ailments.
As content editor in the field of Philippine History textbooks, I experienced firsthand the extent to which mistakes, in fact, carelessness or even outright misinformation, has haven ignored ad made the manuscripts or even in print sometimes. As I’ve discussed elsewhere in the past, I complained to a publishing house following the authors of the Philippine History textbook copied an inaccurate write-up of a widely critiqued article from The Official Gazette in 2016, where it was stated the fact that Marcos has “stepped out” as President in the year 1986 instead of being removed in People Power Revolution. People Power Revolution. The government’s communications department eventually modified the segment following an outcry from the public.
Controlling the content of history textbooks in the Philippines could be difficult for historians, academics, and officials from the Department of Education since textbook production in the Philippines is now more liberal after the removal of Marcos. Although there is no doubt that the Department of Education still has control over which topics have to be addressed and on which learning outcomes are to be measured, however, they have no control over the text. What we read within our books is the result of many different factors, including the author’s personal beliefs and experiences, the editorial staff’s assessments and recommendations, and the business aspect of publishing textbooks.
It is crucial to talk about the accuracy of textbooks since, in the Philippines, most Araling Panlipunan (AP) teachers aren’t history majors and thus heavily rely on books. This is a significant challenge for the industry, as in the past, before Philippine reforms in education, which were implemented in 2013, the majority of AP subjects at the high school were based on the history of the country: 3 out of four issues, with the only one exception, was economics. It is expected that teachers and schools invest in the development of faculty to tackle this problem. However, the reality is that there is no incentive for most AP teachers to invest in the specialization of content when they have already invested in becoming certified teachers. Because of this, it is of paramount importance that high-quality textbooks are used in the classroom.
A more pressing issue is how Martial Law is discussed and studied in textbooks and in the classroom. An investigation conducted by the Far Eastern University Public Policy Center in January 2022 revealed that the discussion of Martial Law in selected AP textbooks was not very extensive regardless of the importance of the subject. The same was confirmed within the school. Because Philippine history is generally taught chronologically and therefore, issues such as Martial Law and the People Power Revolution tend to be discussed towards the end of the syllabus. Because of the number of subjects required to be covered by AP teachers during a single school year and the regular cancellations of classes caused by natural disasters like typhoons, Martial Law is often not covered in-depth, and in depth it is due. I’ve personally witnessed that it was not mentioned at all in some cases.
Additionally, there is the question of presentation, emphasis, and understanding of Martial Law. For instance, how did corruption in that Martial Law era discussed? In many cases, the focus was on Marcos’s friends’ corrupt practices but less on the Marcos family itself. This could have been quickly helped by presenting Supreme Court rulings recognizing the clan’s illicit wealth magnitude. Without a thorough discussion of the direct involvement of Marcos in the corruption of their family and graft, we are the possibility to perpetuate the Marcos myth that says they were not corrupt yet were at the mercy of unscrupulous individuals who profited from their position.
Another frequent topic discussed in discussions of Marcos and Martial Law included the massive infrastructure projects of the President. In both classes and textbooks, there is often an emphasis on aspects of Marcos rule by using living icons such as the Cultural Center of the Philippines and the Lung Center of the Philippines and the Philippine Heart Center, and the San Juanico Bridge, among numerous other projects, but without having a proper analysis of the circumstances surrounding the projects. For instance, one should be able to discuss the cost of infrastructure projects, including the growing global debts, lack of transparency and corruption, not to mention the reality that Marcos was in office for over 20 years. It is also essential to discuss what Filipinos benefited the most from these initiatives, such as the ordinary Filipinos or their acolytes and the other Filipino elites? Without this scrutiny, it is possible to reinforce another Marcos myth: that this was a “Golden Age” despite the undisputed reality that the Philippine economy was in ruin in the early 1980s.
A second concern with Martial Law education is how it is analyzed, processed and praised. The most common method of teaching AP subjects is to require students to consider two perspectives of the topic by focusing on the “positive” characteristics and consequences and the “negative.” When applied to Martial Law, infrastructure development generally is recorded as positive human rights violations are negative. Students are typically challenged to weigh each positive or negative aspect of Martial Law and make their own decisions and assessments. Although this approach might be beneficial, one hopes that teachers analyze the event to help students evaluate this time in our nation’s history based on the values we share as a nation and the generally accepted norms. When done this way, students and teachers can answer with clarity the significance that was left behind by Martial Law.
However, “judging” is not something that educators would prefer to undertake, which I consider, to be one of the most challenging issues facing Martial Law education in the Philippines. As an educator, I’ve observed that many teachers hesitate or are unwilling to assess this time in the history of the Philippines, some because of personal bias, some because of fear or insecurity and others based on the false assumption of impartiality. It is a shame that the legacy left by Martial Law then is reduced to the realm of individual opinions, which is very dangerous in the time of post-factionalism. This belief will only benefit those who have authority in society, like Imelda Marcos, who made this bold claim in the documentary “The Kingmaker”: “Perception is reality, but the truth isn’t.”
Education in the age of Marcos Jr.
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As educators and academics confront the myriad of problems that plague Martial Law education today, they face a more significant problem with the election of Bongbong Marcos in the recent polls. Students, and concerned residents, are asking institutions and individuals to safeguard documents, books, and other documents related to Martial Law and Marcos’s crimes in the fear that they will be lost or unavailable after Marcos Jr. becomes President.
The concerns are valid at the very least. Bongbong Marcos and family members, such as Imee Marcos and their mother Imelda, have always maintained their family’s innocence despite the overwhelming evidence in support. Bongbong himself had once requested revisions to textbooks and claimed that the books were full of “lies” regarding Marcos’s family history. Marcos family. However, the Marcoses have yet to formalize their version of the past despite this. It’s a different story now, however. While before, they had to make it happen through other sources of information such as TikTok, YouTube, and Facebook. They now can make the deviant model of Martial Law and Marcos family historical facts that they have been preaching for a long time.
The Ferdinand family began the institutionalization under President Rodrigo Duterte, knowing full of the time the fact that the President was an all-time ally. The year 2016 was a good instance. The Official Gazette was heavily scrutinized for a post that was revised to mark the 99th birthday anniversary of Ferdinand Sr. The same year, Marcos Sr. was laid to rest at Libingan ng Mga Bayani – the national hero’s cemetery in Manila. Imagine what they can do with a solid power base when they’re in control. It’s also alarming that the presumed President announced plans to name his running mate and vice-president, presumptive Sara Duterte as education secretary just a few days after the election. Her selection was both alarming and disappointing, which is disappointing considering that education was never her main focus and alarming due to her close ties to the Marcoses.
An Appeal to Arms
Although winning the war against Marcos was a massive blow to teachers, it also served as an opportunity to raise the bar. More than ever, educators from all over the country need to reevaluate how Martial Law is taught and evaluated in their schools and even in public debate. Indeed, academics and the education sector generally grew complacent after the removal of Marcos in 1986 due to a variety of reasons. This was the case for me too. Although I would like to believe that the majority of us had taught Martial Law the best we could, I think that most of us did not know the magnitude of false information circulating in and outside of classrooms and its impact on the Filipino people.
Thus, the most urgent job for educators, academics and researchers are to increase efforts to counter the Marcoses historical distortion. All educators must combat misinformation everywhere, especially on social media, where Marcoses and their apologists have a head start. Marcoses and their apologists enjoy an advantage. To quote Winston Churchill, “We shall combat the Marcoses on TikTok. We will combat them in the textbooks. We will battle them with memorials and historical markers. We will never give up!”
As a result of the previous issue, academics and scholars must also be able to create an entire army of translators with the ability to translate quality content from academic journals and books for general consumption. Translators could be elementary educators who are well educated in pedagogy, influencers with a larger audience than academics, members from the faith-based community who are shocked by the disrespect for beliefs they hold dear and youth with the same values.
The academic community also needs to be vigilant about what the Marcos administration deals with in the commemoration and memory of Martial Law and related topics. Minor changes to the writing of official memorials, presidential addresses, historical markers, etc., must be scrutinized and, if necessary, resisted. This is vitally important as the Marcoses can institutionalize historical versions which fit their narrative.
The recent events ought to inspire historians, scholars and academics to participate in writing textbooks for primary education or perhaps collaborate with teachers of basic education to ensure accurate historical accuracy and solid pedagogy. It is essential to write more books that efficiently use primary sources and provide relevant information supporting claims that counter Marcos’s myths. It is also crucial to include stories that come from outside Luzon in which many Filipinos were victims of Martial Law.
Finally, scholars, academics, and educators need to impress Filipino citizens that this issue is essential to every Filipino and isn’t simply a struggle against one particular person or family, as Marcos and his apologists would like to assert. The battle against historical distortion is a declaration of our nation’s values and is enshrined in our Constitution. It’s a battle against attempts to erase what we stand for as human beings.
Four Critical Student Loan Forgiveness Dates Borrowers Should Know About.
The Biden administration’s student loan forgiveness and debt relief programs continue to develop. The timelines, deadlines, and important dates are changed, and it’s difficult for those with loans to stay on with the changes.
Here’s the current situation.
Supreme Court’s Students Loan Forgiveness RulingBiden revealed his unique mass student loan forgiveness plan in 2000. The program would offer up to $20,000 of single-time relief from student debt for approximately 40 million customers. It is estimated that the Education Department estimates that over 26 million borrowers sought relief under the program, and more than 16 million of them were granted relief.
However, before anyone could receive relief from the program, courts in federal Court halted the program in response to various lawsuits. The Biden administration appealed two adverse court rulings before the U.S. Supreme Court, which held a hearing last month. The top Biden officials, including the President, have expressed their confidence in the program’s legitimacy. However, it needs to be made clear how the Supreme Court will decide it will ultimately rule.
Court observers generally anticipate seeing the Supreme Court issued a decision before June 30. If most justices approve the program, students could receive student loan forgiveness within a few weeks after the ruling. However, if the Court decides to strike down the program, then the Biden administration could need to return to the drawing board.
New Student Loan Forgiveness Regulations Are Coming
The Biden administration has approved sweeping new regulations that will affect numerous federal student loan programs, which include:
To qualify for Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF), the new regulations will broaden what is considered “qualifying payments” to include additional deferment periods or forbearances. Those who borrow may be eligible to receive credit towards the forgiveness of student loans for repayments in installments, late or as a lump amount.
Borrower Defense to Repayment -is a program to relieve the Federal student loan obligation of those deceived or deceived by their school. The new rules will broaden the types of school-related misconduct that could constitute the reason for the discharge of student loans. It will also make it easier for students to apply for Education Department to grant group discharges. It will offer an appeal and reconsideration procedure for those denied relief.
In The Total and Permanent Disability (TPD) discharge program, which can discharge Federal student loan debts of those disabled for medical reasons, the new rules will allow Social Security disability benefits recipients to be eligible. They will increase the number of medical professionals confirming that a borrower can receive a TPD discharge. The new regulations will also end the need for post-discharge income monitoring.
The new rules will go into effect July 1 and include additional significant changes, like the limitation of future capitalization for interest.
Student Loan Pause Likely Ending
The nationwide student loan pause is currently in the fourth season. It was initially enacted to combat the Covid-19 virus. The pause has halted the interest and payments on government-owned federal student loans. It also ended all collection efforts against those who defaulted on federal student loans in March 2020.
The most recent extension by President Biden for the student loan stoppage is scheduled to expire 60 calendar days after June 30 or the day when the Supreme Court rules on the student loan forgiveness program of the administration (whichever happens first). So, federal student loans that are covered by the pause will be able to resume repayment around August 30.
There’s always the chance that Biden might prolong the student loan suspension again. This is more likely when the administration ended the national emergency affecting Covid-19 in May, which officials previously stated they’d be doing. But, if it is decided that the Supreme Court rules against Biden’s student loan forgiveness program, advocates urge officials to lift the temporary pause even further.
Student Loan Forgiveness under IDR Account Adjustment
In the past year, the Biden administration unveiled an IDR Account Adjustment. It’s a one-time effort to grant millions of borrower credit retroactively towards student loan repayment under the income-driven payment (IDR) schemes. The Education Department will conduct a one-time adjustment that counts several repayment periods from the past and specific deferment periods in the past and forbearance towards the borrower’s 20- or 25-year loan forgiveness regardless of whether they are not currently involved in IDR plans.
According to the Education Department, borrowers who can get enough credit to reach or exceed the required 20 or 25 years of credit required for student loans to be forgiven “will begin to see their loans forgiven in spring 2023.” A further 3.6 million students are likely to be eligible for three to five years of retroactive credits towards the forgiveness of loans, reducing their time to pay.
Borrowers with direct federal or government-owned student loans are eligible for this IDR Account Adjustment automatic. “Borrowers who have commercially managed FFEL, Perkins, or Health Education Assistance Loan (HEAL) Program loans should apply for a Direct Consolidation Loan” to reap the benefits from the program, according to the Education Department. The department has changed the deadline for consolidation multiple times — at first, on January 1, 2023, and then on May 1, 2023. The last week, they subduedly changed the deadline to December 31, 2023.
What Can You Do With a Psychology Stage?
Those interested in making a qualification in psychology may have an array of possibilities once they graduate with the degree. A psychology stage can be placed on various parts of the psychology field. People in that job might use folks from all different ages, people, and multiple backgrounds. Several who make that stage choose to pursue work as a psychologist in a medical, activities, or health industry, to name a few.
Medical psychologists function to analyze and handle emotional problems in controls such for example private techniques and hospitals. There are also subcategories in that profession; persons might choose to utilize young ones or adults or those encountering material punishment or learning disabilities. That area is also the greatest subcategory of all the psychologists’ accessible positions.
For individuals who enjoy being around activities, workouts, and athletes, a posture in activities psychology could be the many rewarding how to become a substance abuse counselor in california at Rhombus University. While some believe these persons only use skilled athletes, there are many areas where activities psychologists may find themselves. The function can be performed with athletes of various ability levels, improving their athletic efficiency and purpose setting and conducting research. Activities psychologists can also use hurt athletes, assisting them in their healing process. Those that function only with one of these hurt persons are usually known as rehabilitation specialists.
Psychologists also sometimes maneuver towards the counselling world, wherever they can function in several function surroundings with various people. Those that work in colleges may handle a multitude of pupils every year. The task requires guiding these adults within their current academic job and their continued training and life after moving forward from middle school, junior large, or large school. Counsellors who function in hospitals usually have the concept of grief counsellors. They’ll communicate with individuals and their loved ones throughout the patient’s stay in a healthcare facility and probably with the household if they have experienced the patient’s death.
While some work in colleges or hospitals, others can find an even more centralized task in working as a lifetime career counsellor. These people work with people looking for a new job, have issues about a particular profession, and how that profession may match their current lifestyle. Career counsellors might work at colleges, colleges and universities, junior colleges, and vocational rehabilitation companies. The primary purpose of working together with a consumer in that job is to help them figure out wherever their abilities lay, how to apply these qualities in a work setting, and how exactly to go about working that particular job in their life.
The Role of Educational Diagnosticians at Texas State University.
Understanding the Importance of Identifying and Supporting Students with Special Needs
As the population of students with special needs continues to grow, the role of educational diagnosticians becomes increasingly important in ensuring that these students receive the support they need to succeed in school. At Texas State University, educational diagnosticians play a vital role in identifying and supporting students with learning and other disabilities.
An educational diagnostician is a professional who specializes in assessing and identifying students with special needs. They use a variety of assessment tools and techniques to evaluate a student’s strengths and weaknesses, and then use that information to develop an individualized education plan (IEP) for the student. The IEP is a document that outlines the specific accommodations and support services that the student will receive in order to help them succeed in school.
The process of identifying students with special needs begins with a referral from a teacher, parent, or other school staff member. The referral may be made because the student is having difficulty in one or more areas of academic performance, or because the student is exhibiting behaviors that are impacting their ability to learn. Once a referral is made, the educational diagnostician will begin the assessment process, which may include a variety of tests and assessments, such as cognitive and achievement tests, as well as observations of the student in the classroom.
Once the assessment is complete, the educational diagnostician will use the results to determine if the student meets the criteria for a specific disability. The criteria for each disability are determined by the state and federal government, and are based on the most recent research and guidelines in the field. If the student is found to have a disability, the educational diagnostician will work with the student’s teachers and other school staff to develop an IEP that will provide the student with the support and accommodations they need to succeed in school.
The support and accommodations provided in an IEP can include a variety of things, such as extra time on tests and assignments, access to assistive technology, and modifications to the curriculum. The IEP will also include goals for the student, and the educational diagnostician will work with the student’s teachers to monitor the student’s progress and make any necessary adjustments to the IEP.
In addition to working with individual students, educational diagnosticians also play an important role in supporting teachers and other school staff. They provide professional development and training to help teachers understand the needs of students with special needs and how to best support them in the classroom. They also collaborate with other professionals, such as speech therapists and occupational therapists, to ensure that students are receiving the comprehensive support they need.
It is important to note that the educational diagnostician is not the only person who plays a role in the identification and support of students with special needs. The teacher, parents, and other school staff members all play important roles, and the educational diagnostician works in collaboration with these individuals to ensure that the student receives the support they need.
The role of educational diagnosticians at Texas State University is critical in ensuring that students with special needs receive the support they need to succeed in school. The use of assessment tools and techniques, along with the development of individualized education plans, allows these students to receive the accommodations and support they need to succeed academically. Furthermore, the educational diagnostician’s support and collaboration with teachers, parents, and other school staff members helps to ensure that the student is receiving comprehensive support and is on a path towards success.
The role of educational diagnosticians at Texas State University is an important one, as they play a vital role in identifying and supporting students with special needs. The use of assessment tools and techniques, along with the development of individualized education plans, allows these students to receive the accommodations and support they need to succeed academically. Furthermore, the educational diagnostician’s support and collaboration with teachers, parents, and other school staff members helps to ensure that the student is receiving comprehensive support and is on a path towards success.
The educational diagnostician is an essential member of the school community and plays a vital role in ensuring that students with special needs receive the support they need to succeed. They are dedicated professionals who work tirelessly to help students with disabilities overcome their challenges and reach their full potential. The educational diagnostician’s role is vital in ensuring that students with special needs are provided with the resources and support they need to achieve academic success.
In summary, Texas State University’s educational diagnosticians play a crucial role in identifying and supporting students with special needs, by conducting assessments and creating individualized education plans that cater to the students’ unique needs and abilities. They also collaborate with other professionals to provide comprehensive support to students, to help them succeed academically and socially.
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